Sunday, January 19, 2020

feline leukemia virus :: essays research papers fc

FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS Virus Classification:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Order:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mononegavirales  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Family:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parvoviridae   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Subfamily:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parvovirinae   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Genus:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Parvovirus  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Species:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Feline panleukopenia virus Also called feline infectious eneritis, feline â€Å"distemper†, and feline ataxia or incoordination. Examples of other viruses belonging to the same genus as Feline panleukopenia virus include Canine parvovirus type 2, Porcine parvovirus, Mink enteritis virus, and Raccoon enteritis virus. Virus Structure:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a small (20 nm) autonomous , non –enveloped, icosahedral, single-stranded DNA virus that is approximately 5,120 nucleotides in legnth. The genome encodes for two genes which each form two proteins by alternative mRNA splicing. The non-enveloped capsid is assembled from 60 copies of a combination of the overlapping capsid proteins VP1 and VP2. The virus contains three capsid proteins. The capsids normally enter cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication of the virus in the host occurs in cells that are rapidly dividing. FPV can survive in pH ranging from 3 to 9. The virus is highly resistant to most disinfectants (ether, chloroform, acid, alcohol, and heat), but is susceptible to Clorox bleach. History and Natural Biology of Feline Panleukopenia Virus:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Feline panleukopenia is endemic to cats worldwide. The virus has been identified since the early 20th century. The virus is so severe that it was referred to as â€Å"cat plague† in earlier times when infections worldwide nearly wiped out cat populations in certain geographic areas. Now FPV rarely occurs in domestic populations in which vaccination is routinely practiced. There is a seasonality to the occurrence of FPV that usually coincides with the production of new populations of susceptible kittens. This seasonal effect may vary according to geographic location. In the northeastern United States, most cases of FPV are seen in the summer and early fall. However, outbreaks of FPV may occur at any time of the year. It is thought that feral domestic cat populations are a natural resevior for Feline panleukopenia virus. Clinical Features and Viral Pathogenesis:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  All members of the cat family (Felidae) are susceptible to infection with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), as are raccoons, and minks, in the family Procyoniclae. Three major body sytems are affected by FPV. FPV specifically depresses the white blood cells and thus the immune system of the host, it attacks the rapidly reproducing cells lining the gut, and FPV affects the reproducing cells of the cerebellum and the retina of the eye when they are in their developing stage. The system it chooses depends on the age of the cat at the time of infection.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Teaching of an aspect of mathematics and english education essay

Appraisal for larning ( AfL ) has become slightly of a cant and has been an involvement in instruction for over 20 old ages. Harmonizing to Braodfoot and Black ( 1994 ) appraisal sits at the nucleus of acquisition and serves as a communicative device between the universe of instruction and that of wider society. Since the Education Reform Act ( 1988 ) and coinciding debut of the National Curriculum ( NC ) , the Government has put important accent on appraisal. The NC in England and Wales was created to standardize acquisition, so that the quality of end product in schools could be measured ( Murray, 2003 ) . Therefore the impression of appraisal in order to mensurate criterions was cardinal to its development. In this essay I will critically analyze the beginnings and intent of AfL and so travel on to research how I, as a trainee instructor, implement AfL into my ain instruction. There are a figure of AfL devices that can be used within the schoolroom, from larning aims, ego and peer appraisal, formative usage of summational trials and feedback. Given the restraints with word count I will measure one specific country of AfL that I used during a sequence of three literacy lessons based around Instructions ; oppugning. Subsequent to the debut of the NC, the Task Group for Assessment and Testing ( TGAT ) was developed in order to construct on the NC, planing a system of national testing and instructor appraisal ( DES/WO,1988 ) . The undertaking group study distinguished between summational and formative appraisal: â€Å" Formative, so that the positive accomplishments of a student may be recognised and discussed and the appropriate following stairss may be planned. Summative, for the recording of the overall accomplishment of a student in a systematic manner † ( DES/WO 1988: parity. 23 ) The TGAT argued that formative appraisal was rule in raising criterions ( DES/WO, 1988 ) . However, as Black ( 2000 ) notes, their statement was considered ‘weak ‘ and was mostly ignored in pattern. The usage of summational appraisal prevailed due to the demand for schools to show high criterions of instruction ( Black, 2000 ) . Wiliam ( 2001 ) adds that as a consequence, appraisal became divorced from larning and the immense part that appraisal could do to acquisition was mostly lost. Under the new Labour Government the NC was revised and the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority ( QCA ) determined that students would be assessed and a study would be written at the terminal of each Key Stage. Although there is still a demand for summational appraisal, the comprehensiveness of survey offered by the NC suggests that formative appraisal has an increasing function in back uping acquisition ( NC 2008 ) . More late formative appraisal has been labelled as ‘Assessment f or Learning ‘ ( AfL ) . It was non until Black and Wiliam ( 1998 ) published conclusive grounds that AfL significantly improved students larning that there was a considerable push for execution in schools and hence became an indispensable constituent of schoolroom work ( Black and Wiliam, 1998 ) . As Black et al province few enterprises in instruction have had such a strong organic structure of grounds to back up a claim to raise criterions ( 2004: 9 ) . In its simplest signifier, AfL is described as: â€Å" The procedure of seeking and construing grounds for usage by scholars and their instructors to make up one's mind where the scholars are in their acquisition, where they need to travel and how best to acquire at that place † . ( Assessment Reform Group, 2002 ) The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority ( QCA ) enhance this thought of construing grounds by presenting the impression that AfL enables students to be responsible for their ain acquisition. They add that students will better most if they understand the purpose of their acquisition, where they are in relation to this purpose and how they can accomplish the purpose ( or shut the spread in their cognition ) ( QCA, 2008 ) . Therefore one could reason that AfL encourages independent larning which increases self efficiency beliefs and the capableness to execute ( Pintrich and De Groot, 1990 ) . This relationship is supported by Deci and Ryan ‘s ( 1985 ) Self-government Theory ( SDT ) which purports that if a individual ‘s demand for liberty is satisfied so the motive to better will be intrinsic instead than extrinsic ( Vansteenkiste et al, 2006 ; Deci and Ryan, 2002 ) . Furthermore this correlates with the societal constructivist theory of acquisition and the humanistic do ctrine of larning. Inspired by such theoreticians as Abraham Maslow ( 1954 ) and Carl Rogers ( 1951 ) AfL encourages pupils to hold the ‘freedom to larn ‘ , understand and be cognizant of one ‘s strengths and failings with an built-in belief to win. Maslow ( 1954 ) and Rogers ( 1951 ) argue that intrinsic motive is a more healthy signifier. Reinboth and Duada ( 2004 ) agree, saying that intrinsic motive and desire is associated with increased ego regard, enjoyment, continuity ( Deci and Ryan, 1985 ) and more effectual acquisition ( Gottfried, 1990 ) . The supposed benefits of AfL run throughout instruction, with deductions that kids from a primary age benefit from holding self awareness around their ain acquisition through to those in higher instruction, at College and University. Indeed the Dearing Report ( 1997 ) provinces: â€Å" The universe of work is in continual alteration: persons will progressively necessitate to develop new capablenesss and to pull off their ain development and acquisition throughout life † . ( Dearing, 1997: 12 ) However as Swaffield ( 2008 ) notes assessment is multifaceted and complicated, it comes in a assortment of pretenses, takes many signifiers and fulfils many intents ( 2008: 11 ) . It would look that through the procedure of AfL there is an outlook that scholar ‘s become more confident, independent and independent ( Taras, 2002 ) and therefore the duty for the pupils ‘ acquisition is shared ( Black et al, 2004 ) . Whilst it may look an wholly positive intercession and one that lends itself to a ego reflective, dynamic and empowered larning experience I do question how genuinely realistic AfL is in the schoolroom? Indeed AfL may be desirable, but as Webb and Jones ( 2009 ) inquiry how easy is it for instructors to accomplish? Successful execution of AfL certainly depends on the acquisition attack and instructors ‘ cognition, accomplishments and schemes that they use to transport out complex pedagogical procedures ( 2009: 167 ) . Furthermore is our instruction system is set up for an environment to the full centred on the demands of the person? As Taras ( 2002 ) provinces, do our current patterns maintain gait with our ideals of pupil centred acquisition? ( 2002: 508 ) . Taras raises a valid statement. Is it possible to to the full encompass AfL when our instruction system is designed to fix kids for summational testing at the terminal of each stage of schooling? Given that our instruction system is based upon summational trial scores one could reason that there are assorted messages ; empower scholars so that they understand the roots of their acquisition and take duty for this acquisition yet guarantee that all scholars pass trials on a national degree. On the one manus by promoting AfL it would look that we are accepting and so encompassing the fact that all scholars are different ; larn in different ways and at different velocities. Yet on the other manus, we continue to prove all scholars on a mainstream, national degree and systematically generate degrees and numerical marks for every student. Black and William ( 1998 ) promote the formative usage of summational testing, so instead than seeing proving as a agency of mensurating, ‘it can be used to supply an indicant of students ‘ strengths and development demands, particularly at of import phases of their academic calling ‘ ( Smith, 2010: 4 ) . However one might hold with Taras ( 2002 ) ; our current patterns within instruction certainly do non suit with the ideals upon which AfL are based. Hargreaves ( 2008 ) concurs ; saying that the Government has put in topographic point a ‘debased version of the Black and Wiliam theoretical account of AfL ‘ due to our constricting theoretical account of instruction ( 2008: 1 ) . Although the execution of AfL may be criticised the intent and possible acquisition results are widely accepted. Feedback is important to successful acquisition ( Swaffield, 2008 ; Black and Wiliam, 1998 ) and is arguably one of the most effectual signifiers of educational intercession ( Hattie, 2007 ; Wiliam, 2007 ) . Oral feedback, through inquiring, is less developed than written feedback but can be a powerful manner of giving instant formative feedback to pupils. Furthermore oppugning can work both ways and besides provide instant feedback from the pupil to the instructor. Effective inquiring goes beyond inquiring simple ‘open ‘ inquiries ( as opposed to closed ‘yes ‘ or ‘no ‘ inquiries ) and can be a hard tool to seamlessly implement into the schoolroom. However despite any troubles the DfES ( 2007 ) province a overplus of grounds as to why oppugning offers the chance for a extremely effectual schoolroom where AfL is obviously active. The most outstanding ground cited is that of oppugning holding the ability to enable students to gain what they know and, more significantly, what they partially know and guide them to farther develop their apprehension ( 2007: 2 ) . Black et Al ( 2004 ) agree, adding that oppugning can go portion of the synergistic atmospher of the schoolroom and can supply an priceless chance to widen pupils ‘ thought through immediate feedback on their work ( 2004:12 ) . Crowe and Stanford ( 2010 ) further add that the effectual usage of oppugning creates a ‘dynamic and synergistic duologue ‘ and so utilizing higher degree oppugning and believing ‘predicates the use of information and thoughts which, in bend, provide an chance to develop new thoughts and apprehensions ‘ ( 2010: 36 ) . Mentioning to the lesson sequence overview at appendix 1 ( page 2 ) it is apparent that I intended to utilize oppugning as an imperative appraisal tool as I felt that it would give me an instan t overview and apprehension of the kids ‘s acquisition and how they may be able to come on farther. In add-on I decided to do usage of the single whiteboards ( see appendix 2a and 2b ) when utilizing oppugning as this would let me to measure the category as a whole, instead than merely an single kid that answers a directed inquiry. The usage of oppugning is perceived to hold many advantages. As the Northern Eastern Education and Library Board ( NEELB ) ( 2008 ) and Trinkle ( 2009 ) note set uping the correct schoolroom clime is important to effectual inquiring. Black et Al ( 2004 ) concur ; adding that in order for oppugning to be an effectual AfL device the instructor needs to accommodate a ‘risk taking civilization ‘ and a ‘community of question ‘ ( 2004: 11 ) . Through my ain pattern I strived to make this inclusive community, guaranting that I included all kids and made them experience valued and comfy to portion their ain ideas and thoughts. I was happy for kids to give a ‘wrong ‘ reply and by researching why the reply may non be right, as opposed to merely stating ‘no ‘ , I felt that this contributed to a supportive and encouraging schoolroom environment. Rae and Nelson ( 2010 ) agree, emphasizing the importance of making a collaborative acquisition environm ent otherwise the fright of acquiring a inquiry incorrect and looking like a failure in forepart of their equals will deter scholars from seting their manus up or replying a inquiry if selected. As shown on my programs in appendix 2a, 2b and 2c I pre-empted inquiries that I felt would be relevant to the kids and would foreground whether or non the kids had listened, understood and interpreted the information given about instructions. I thought approximately unfastened inquiries yet was really cognizant of the age of my category and was hence witting non to inquire inquiries that may confound them. Looking at the inquiries I had planned at appendix 2a, Rogers and Abell ( 2008 ) would knock me for non incorporating multi degree oppugning. On the most basic degree inquiries such as ‘what are instructions? ‘ , ‘how are they used? ‘ and ‘what happens if the instructions are non in the right order ‘ are all unfastened inquiries and do so necessitate the scholar to believe about an reply which goes beyond merely ‘yes or ‘no ‘ . However they are all comprehension inquiries. Whilst comprehensive inquiries demonstrate that the kids show apprehension of information callback and can set this information in their ain words ( Crowe and Stanford, 2010 ) on a more holistic degree I have non utilised the different types and degrees of inquiries ( cognition, comprehension. application, analysis, rating, and synthesis ) to back up my systematic development of oppugning schemes ( Hill and Flynn, 2008 ) . As Anderson and Krathwohl ( 2000 ) province I have fallen in to a common trap ; teacher ‘s frequently do non gain the types or qualities of inquiries that they use. To better upon this in the hereafter, Costa ( 2000 ) suggests that developing a broad scope of oppugning schemes that include a diverseness of inquiry types will heighten the acquisition environment and let for distinction within the learning procedure. There are a figure of ways in which this may be achieved. Clarke ( 2005 ) proposes utilizing Edward De Bono ‘s Six Thinking Hats, with each chapeau being linked to a different thought scheme and therefore a different manner of oppugning. For illustration White Hat believing involves informations and information presented neutrally, so inquiries would include ‘what information is losing? ‘ Black Hat believing involves being defensive and cautious, so inquiries would include ‘why would this non work? ‘ I could besides hold thought about Blooms Taxonomy ( 1956 ) to develop a broader scope of oppugning types. The foundation work of Bloom ‘s taxonomy divides educational aims into three separate spheres, cognitive, affectional and psycho-motor and hence encourages a focal point towards a more holistic position of instruction. Using Bloom as a stimulation would promote one to believe about the different spheres and how to integrate these into the types of oppugning used. As Black et Al ( 2004 ) recognise, utilizing a assortment of inquiry types allows scholars to go more active participants and come to gain that acquisition may depend less on their capacity to descry the right reply and more on their preparedness to show and discourse their ain apprehension ( 2004: 13 ) . Upon farther contemplation of my ain usage of oppugning I noticed that I tended to inquire a inquiry and so merely wait for a few seconds before either inquiring another kid or, on occasion, replying the inquiry myself if that kid had non responded. Rowe and Hill ( 1996 ) note that this is a common happening in the usage of inquiring, and in fact their survey on oppugning concluded that on norm instructor ‘s waited less than a 2nd before they intervened. Black et Al ( 2004 ) argue that the effect of such short ‘wait clip ‘ is that the lone inquiries that ‘work ‘ are those that can be answered rapidly, without idea ; that is, inquiries naming for memorised facts. As a consequence the duologue is at a superficial degree ( 2004: 11 ) . Harmonizing to the NEELB ( 2008 ) there are a figure of schemes that I could set in topographic point which would supply scholars with critical thought clip and therefore they would be better placed to react. Immediately, one scheme would be to increase the wait clip ( Black et al, 2003 ; Taras, 2009 ; Crowe and Stanford, 2010 ) . Swaffield ( 2008 ) explains that this would let scholars the critical clip they need to reply the inquiry, would ensue in fewer ‘I do n't cognize ‘ , would bring forth more thoughtful and originative replies and would profit all scholars, no affair their ability. Black et Al ( 2004 ) note that many instructors find it difficult to make this, for it requires them to interrupt their established wonts. However once they change, the outlooks of their pupils are challenged ( 2004: 11 ) . Other schemes, supported by Trincani and Crozier ( 2007 ) and the NEELB ( 2008 ) , include affecting the whole category instead than merely one person, walking around the room whilst inquiring inquiries ( this takes the force per unit area off an person ) , utilizing a ‘no hands up ‘ attack ( this would promote all scholars to remain engaged for longer ) and eventually utili zing the ‘think, brace, portion ‘ scheme to affect the whole category and give those scholars who are somewhat shyer the chance to take part. As Taras ( 2009 ) states incorporating these schemes create a displacement in the inquiring model. Learning moves from a behavioristic theory where factual callback was prioritised, to a societal constructivist position taken from cognitive psychological science, where a complex model of factors within a given context permits scholars to research their ain apprehension ( 2009: 64 ) . Atkins et Al ( 1993 ) agree, observing that this would besides look to match to ‘deep ‘ larning as opposed to ‘surface ‘ acquisition ( 1993: 50 ) . To reason AfL plays a polar function in the schoolroom, and so literature emphasises the importance of AfL as a procedure to increase students ‘ duty for their ain acquisition ( DfES 2007 ) . This essay has critically explored the intent of AfL, foregrounding the disagreements between the Government push for AfL to be used throughout instruction yet within a system which still relies to a great extent on summational testing. I have analysed my ain usage of one component of AfL ; oppugning, and can reason that it is a powerful device that has several benefits for the instructor. Questioning has the ability to arouse kids ‘s ‘ understanding, make an environment that encourages hazard pickings, contributes to classroom interaction and promotes larning and enthusiasm. However in order to to the full accomplish these benefits one must carefully see and reflect upon the nature of inquiries used and actively program to implement the usage of multi flat inquiries as portion of their lesson planning ( Anderson & A ; Krathwohl, 2000 ; Hill & A ; Flynn, 2008 ) . As I progress as a instructor I will now take more clip to see the usage of oppugning so that I guarantee that I am maximizing its full potency.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Cognitive Science The Scientific Study Of The Mind

Midterm Exam Question 1-Cognitive Science is defined as the scientific study of the mind. Cognitive Science uses the scientific method as it primary methodology. One of the main features of cognitive science is the multifaceted method, and it uses linguistics, robotics, neuroscience, cognitive, the evolutionary approach, psychology, the emotion approach, the social approach, philosophy, and artificial intelligence (Friedenberg and Silverman, 2012). Cognitive Science uses all these different methods mentioned above, and this is why cognitive science is different. It takes form linguistic, philosophy, and neuroscience, etc. As a result, the traditional cognitive psychological view does not utilize all these fields and areas of study, and this is why cognitive science applies to almost everything we breath, feel, and touch; therefore, cognitive science applies and intertwines all these different fields of study (Friedenberg and Silverman, 2012). Cognitive Science refers not so much to the sum of all disciplines but to their connection or diverging work on specific problems. Cognitive Science is a combined effort among researchers working in numerous fields (Friedenberg and Silverman, 2012). The cement that holds Cognitive Science together is the topic of the mind, and the use of scientific methods. The tri-level hypothesis, mental or artificial information processing events can be assessed on three different levels (Friedenberg and Silverman, 2012). The greatest or moreShow MoreRelatedIs Psychology A Science?1518 Words   |  7 PagesWhether psychology is a science or not has been a long running debate between psychologists and other scientists alike. There have been various attempts at making psychology a scientific discipline in the past such as the movement from behaviourism into cognitivism. Researchers such as Wundt and Watson have worked hard to bring psychology into the world of scientific research and through the years have made a very good start but have they managed to achieve scientific criteria? Berezow (2012) definedRead MoreEvolution of Cognitive Psychology1054 Words   |  5 PagesEvolution of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive psychology is defined as â€Å"the scientific study of mental processes† (Riegler Riegler 2008, p. 1). During the 1960s, cognitive psychology became an emerging presence in the field of psychology. During this time period, attention to the study of â€Å"how internal states, such as thoughts, feelings, and moods influence behavior† (Cherry 2010, p. 12). Cognitive psychology studies how individuals think, comprehend language, and form beliefs. Human developmentRead MorePsychology : Cognitive Psychology And Psychology980 Words   |  4 Pages A Cognitive Psychology 1064 Words 5 Pages Cognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. Introduction A scientific branch of psychology that isRead MoreCognitive Psychology Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesCognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. 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It is grounded on the theory that thoughts and emotions affect our behavior; furthermore, behavior can be changed through a modification of our thoughts or emotions. Cognitive psychologists examine how our minds obtainRead MoreEssay on The Black and White of Science and Religion1670 Words   |  7 PagesAnnotated References Astley, J; Francis, L. (2010) British Journal of Religious Education, Promoting positive attitudes towards science and religion among sixth-form pupils: dealing with scientism and creationism. Vol. 32 Issue 3. The Routledge group writes a very compelling argument dealing with the attitudes towards science and religion. The authors have survey results from their research and supply the basic data learned. The paper data talks about the consistency of each institutionRead MoreCognitive Psychology Definition Paper1387 Words   |  6 PagesCognitive Psychology Definition Paper Randy Strickland University of Phoenix PSY/360 Dione Johnson July 111, 2011 Cognitive Psychology Definition Paper Introduction Cognition is the â€Å"science† term for the process of thought.† Its usage varies in different ways in accordance with different disciplines: For example, in psychology and cognitive science, it refers to an information processing view of an individuals psychological makeup. It addresses the questions of how psychological/cognitiveRead MoreIs Psychology A Science?998 Words   |  4 Pagesquestion that ‘psychology is a Science’ motivates a substantially critical debate amongst many professions, having very strong opinions. To come to a vigorous conclusion on this subject we must take into recognition both sides of the argument, what is science, and weather Psychology meets the principles of Science. In doing this the following essay will be debating the principles of science, the scientific unifying approach, poppers opinion on whether psychology is a science through his theory of falsificationRead MoreHistory of Cognitive Psychology1666 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract An analysis of the history of cognitive psychology. Including key ideas, contributors, trends, etc. History of Cognitive Psychology According to G. Miller of Princeton University, cognitive psychology  is an approach to psychology that emphasizes internal mental processes. So, â€Å"since the beginning of experimental psychology in the nineteenth century, there had been interest in the study of higher mental processes. But something discontinuous happened in the late 1950s, something so

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Cuba And The United States - 1610 Words

Introduction A lot has gone on between the United States and Cuba between 1959 and 2015. In 1959, Cuba and the United States cut off diplomatic ties. On December 17, 2014, the United States and Cuba announced that they would restore diplomatic ties. Diplomatic ties is defined as â€Å"The art or practice of conducting international relations, as in negotiating alliances, treaties, and agreements† by The Free Dictionary. This means that two countries work together and with other countries to talk about alliances and make treaties and agreements. When they cut off diplomatic ties, the United States and Cuba basically had nothing to do with each other on the international scene. History of Cuba Cuba was first discovered by Spanish explorers about 500 years ago. Cuba is the largest country of the West Indies, which include Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. Cuba has a population of over 11 million people. They have been shut off from the United States since 1959. They have not gotten any new cars from the United States since then, so they keep the 1950s cars in use. Fidel Castro became the Prime Minister of Cuba in 1959 after seizing Havana and overthrowing Fulgencio Batista. Havana, La Habana in Spanish, is the largest city in Cuba, as well as the largest city in all of the Caribbean, and the capital city of Cuba. Havana is also the only major city in Cuba. Havana has a scenic waterfront and is surrounded by beaches. Cuba is 64% white. These whites used to own AfricanShow MoreRelatedCuba And The United States864 Words   |  4 PagesCuba and the United States are two very different countries. Although they are only nearly 90 miles away from each other it has been over 50 years since both countries have had any real relationship towards each other, other than the hatred that seems to shown by the two countries’ politicians. In October 1960 the United States began to impose its first round of embargoes towards the small island when Cuba decided to nationalize all of the American Oil on its county after the United States withoutRead MoreThe United States And Cuba1491 Words   |  6 Pages Before the conflict between the United States and Cuba, the two countries were strongly connected in terms of trading, with the US purchasing 87% of Cuba’s exports (CITE). However, once Fidel Castro came to power in Janurary 1959 after successfully overpowering President Batista and established Cuba as a communist state, relations became strained. In the following year, $1.8 billion US assets in Cuba were taken by Castro and the newly Communist state created close ties with the Soviet Union (CITERead MoreCuba And The United States1217 Words   |  5 Pageshe U.S and Cuba officially cut ties in January of 1961, meaning that there have not been any high-level diplomatic relations with Cuba for 54 years. 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The United States and Cuba have struggled to find common ground in regards to foreign policy overRead MoreThe United States And Cuba1534 Words   |  7 Pageshostilities, the United States and Cuba have taken significant steps in recent years to dramatically alter their relationship in the years ahead. Those efforts are controversial to a number of Americans who oppose engaging the Cuban government. Prior to the Spanish American War of 1898, Cuba was a Spanish colony with extensive commercial relations with U.S. businesses, particularly with regard to the production of sugar. Following the U.S. victory in the Spanish American War in 1898, Cuba, which is locatedRead MoreCuba And The United States1610 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction A lot has gone on between the United States and Cuba between 1959 and 2015. In 1959, Cuba and the United States cut off diplomatic ties. On December 17, 2014, the United States and Cuba announced that they would restore diplomatic ties. 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A body of people, who for almost 55 years, have been given the cold shoulder by one of the world’s biggest superpower and the only superpower in close proximity to their own island. The U.S. implemented sanctions on Cuba in 1960 and 1961, with President John FRead MoreThe Embargo On Cuba And The United States1781 Words   |  8 PagesIn December 2014, President Obama started restoring diplomatic relations with Cuba. Cuba and the United States have been hostile since the Cuban Revolution of 1959, when Fidel Castro overthrew the US-supportedbacked dictator, Fulgencio Batista, and established a Communist regime. The US rejected Castro’s bid for equal economic partnership because they wanted to maintain economic dominance. As such, Castro began seizing US assets, causing back-and-forth actions that culmi nated in Presidents Eisenhower

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Essay on Rousseaus Philosophy in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein

In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, the titular character states that If [mans] impulses were confined to hunger, thirst and desire, [he] might nearly be free (Shelley, 97). With this assertion, Victor imparts his belief that man is most content in the state of nature; a state where only his most primal needs must be fulfilled in order to be satisfied. Man in his natural state is the central topic in Jean-Jacques Rousseaus philosophic essay A Discourse on Inequality, an academic work that had tremendous influence on Shelley. Shelley uses three of Rousseaus major beliefs as fundamental elements of Frankenstein; man is most content in the state of nature, society is what corrupts him and once corrupted, he can never return to his natural†¦show more content†¦He is oblivious to the fact that his appearance is horrific and has no knowledge of the concept of evil because he has had no exposure to society (Edwards). The monster does not know that civilized man views his ugly exterio r as representative of evil within, so he is baffled when the occupant of a hut he stumbles upon produces a terrified shriek and runs away (Shelley, 105). The monster later comes to know good and evil; virtue and vice; due to the fact that he possesses the faculty of perfectibility Ââ€" mans inexhaustible ability to improve himself (Â…) and be shaped by his environment (Edwards). This quality of adaptability allows for enlightenment to occur, but is ultimately the source of all of mans misery. The monster becomes malignant through his exposure to society, a phenomenon that is congruent with Rousseaus doctrine. The monster as natural man is nomadic; he roams from place to place, eating and resting where he can. When he finds adequate shelter in the hovel attached to the De Laceys cottage it becomes convenient for him to stay there. According to Rousseaus discourse, new conveniences [weaken] bodies and minds, and [eventually turn] into needs (Edwards). The monsters newfound kennel is directly adjacent to a familial society; one that Ââ€" due to his perfectibility Ââ€" transforms him irrevocably by producing a need for assimilation. Rousseau writes that withoutShow MoreRelatedRousseau s Views On Inequality And Origin Of Languages1513 Words   |  7 Pagesarticles have found and appreciated that Jean Jacques Rousseau philosophies are present in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Rousseau’s essay Discourse on Inequality and Origin of Languages can be directly co rrelated with the development of the creature in Frankenstein. While it is clear that Rousseau’s philosophies follow the transformation of the creature I sparked more of an interest in the philosophies of John Locke and connecting his philosophies with the transformation of the creature. John Locke’s EssayRead MoreThe Romantic Movement1322 Words   |  5 Pagesemotional aspect of literature, was a period when such novels as Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus were written, being very different than novels written before this era. Romantic thinkers and writers, such as Mary Shelley, believed that imagination was the crucial way of thinking. They often depicted their heroes in their novels as â€Å"creative artists† that are determined to push beyond society’s restrictions and ways of life. Mary Shelley was similar to these writers of such concepts and had incorporatedRead MoreRomantic Elements Of Frankenstein1358 Words   |  6 PagesFrankenstein; or The Modern Prometheus, is a novel written by English author Mary Shelley in 1816. Originally intended as a gothic ghost story while on retreat in Geneva, Shelley’s novel would later become the groundwork for modern science fiction and horror. As a romantic piece, Frankenstein is a novel intended to entertain, to scare, and to bring a sense of unease to the reader. Culturally and historically, however, it acts as a romantic commentary on the transition from the Enlightenment periodRead More Mary Shelleys Frankenstein - The Individual and Society Essay1923 Words   |  8 PagesFrankenstein: The Individual and Society      Ã‚  Ã‚   The creatures ambiguous humanity has long puzzled readers of Mary Shelleys Frankenstein. In this essay I will focus on how Frankenstein can be used to explore two philosophical topics, social contract theory, and gender roles, in light of ideas from Shelleys two philosophical parents, William Godwin, and Mary Wollstonecraft.    What Does it Mean to be Human? Individual and Society    One historically important tradition in socialRead MoreMetamorphoses Within Frankenstein14861 Words   |  60 PagesThe Critical Metamorphoses of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein You must excuse a trif ling d eviation, From Mrs. Shelley’s marvellous narration — from th e musical Frankenstein; or, The Vamp ire’s Victim (1849) Like Coleridge’ s Ancient Mariner , who erupts into Mary Sh elley’s text as o ccasionally and inev itably as th e Monster into Victor Frankenstein’s lif e, Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometh eus passes, like night, from land to land and w ith stang ely ad aptable powers of speech Read MoreMan Or Monster? By Mary Shelley s Frankenstein And Oscar Wilde s The Picture Of Dorian Gray2820 Words   |  12 Pagesresponsibility for their actions. In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, the â€Å"monsters† come from creators that will not take responsibilities for their actions and properly care for their creations; therefore, these neglecting creators are the true monsters and not the innocent, impressionable creations. Victor Frankenstein’s characterization and family background establish his nature as the true â€Å"monster† in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Victor had an idyllic childhoodRead MoreHow Does Mary Shelley Create a Sense of Dread and Horror Up to Chapter 5 in the Novel ‘Frankenstein’?6870 Words   |  28 PagesHow does Mary Shelley create a sense of dread and horror up to chapter 5 in the no vel ‘Frankenstein’? Mary Shelley wrote the novel Frankenstein. The novel is also known as the modern Prometheus. Mary Shelley, her husband Percy and Lord Byron went to Lake Geneva. Lord Byron challenged the group to a ghost story. After that Mary Shelley had a dream which then made her start writing her ghost story. Her dream was of a boy which made a machine, a man, which showed signs of life. Mary then had theRead MoreDiscuss to What Extent the Monster in Frankenstein Is Portrayed as a Tragic Hero?3265 Words   |  14 PagesDiscuss to what extent the monster in Frankenstein is portrayed as a tragic hero? Aristotelian defined tragedy as the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself. It incorporates incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish the catharsis of such emotions. The tragic hero will most effectively evoke both our pity and terror if he is neither thoroughly good nor evil but indeed a combination of both. A tragic hero has the potential

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Dead Poets Society Film Study Essay Example For Students

Dead Poets Society Film Study Essay Society has engaged Its audiences and critics with Its brilliant plot spun expertly Like a spiders web. This coming of age film explores the rebellious nature of the adolescents as they progress from childhood to adulthood. Dead Poets Society is unique with its brilliant acting, uplifting story and superb craftsmanship. The main characters in this film are Robin Williams as Mr. Keating, Robert Sean Leonard as Neil Perry, and Ethan Hawk as Todd Anderson. I believe that Robin Williams was the perfect choice to act as Mr. Keating as he is well-known to possess a humorous rationality. The enthusiasm that he emits when acting makes the film feel very realistic. For example In the Toddys Breakthrough scene, the emotion seen on his face makes it feel as if it is not just a film but something that would happen in an actual classroom. Robert Sean Leonard, who played Neil Perry, is a young adult still finding his maturity and responsibility. However as his father starts to dictate his life and lead him away from his lifelong passion of acting, Neil feels that he cant convince his father to allow him to live his dream and ends his own life. All wrought the film Robert Sean Leonard has used amazing facial and body language to convey a confused adolescent to the audience. In the scene where Knells father decides to enroll Neil into a military school, Neil portrays an exasperated and desperate teenager with his magnificent use of facial expressions. Ethan Hawk, who played Todd Anderson, is able to portray the nervous personality a very shy teenager. In the beginning of the film Todd was a very insecure student and couldnt talk to anyone with authority. Ethan played all of Toddys Insecurities flawlessly from the stuttering In his voice to the whimpering facial expressions. Ethanes expertise In acting Is highlighted In the Toddys Breakthrough scene. In this scene Todd Is helped to overcome his fear by saying a poem in front of the whole class. The fear of performing Is painted all over Ethan Hawkers face but as Keating helps him forget it all he finally breaks through the wall of insecurity that had held him back throughout his whole life. The brilliant acting bought by the main actors helped make this dramatic film, entertaining, funny, realistic and overall superb. With the use of special effects, film techniques and the dazzling acting, this film has truly touched Its audiences and critics.

Monday, December 2, 2019

My Work free essay sample

Name a famous person whom you would consider a â€Å"typical† American. What characteristics of this individual do you think make her or him typical? Do you consider these characteristics a stereotype? Why, or why not? IndividualDistance Learning Vocabulary and Course Forums| Resources: Appendix D, Glossary multimedia  Imagine  that you are trying to explain distance learning to a friend. Write  a response of 200 to 300 words to  explain how courses work at University of Phoenix. Use each of the following terms at least once in your explanation:  ? Threaded discussion? Electronic forum? Asynchronous communication? Feedback? Online? The Internet or the web? Participation grade  Create  a list of the forums in a typical University of Phoenix online course. Indicate which forum you would place the following messages into:  ? A message intended for your instructor concerning feedback you received on an assignment? A message responding to a classmate’s bio? A message replying to a discussion question or discussion thread? A message about a classmate’s hobby or outside interest? A message about clarifying assignment instructions| Due Day 7- Sunday| 30|   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Threaded discussion- ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Electronic forum ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Asynchronous communication ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Feedback ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Online ? ?  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Participation grade At University of phoenix can go to class and earn a degree, Unlike a traditional le arning environment where students are required to take three or more classes at a time. We will write a custom essay sample on My Work or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The advantages of a distance learning environment is that, e. Students can. In a distant learning environment students have time to think.. Students can use the e-library respond to questions asked by instructors through an electronic forum, unlike he traditional environment where you have to think fast and respond as soon as a question is asked. With Internet access, you can go to class, interact with instructors and retrieve lectures and assignments entirely online. Because the information is all in text form, you’ll never miss an important point. With your personalized student website you can: * check email * access  student services * complete coursework through electronic forums * participate with your classes when and where you choose   Ã‚   * work closely with classmates on a learning team communicate online with classmates and instructors * register for classes, pay tuition, order books and get grades At the click of a mouse, you can view your textbooks and check out research materials in our  online University Library. If you need help finding information, our team of librarians and research specialists are ready to assist you. You can also get help online with your math classes through our  Center for Mathematics Excellence  or help with your English classes through our  Center for Writing Excellence, where you can also have your essays reviewed. Students can attend a course at  anytime, from anywhere. This means that parents can attend to their children, then sit down to class; working students can attend classes no matter what their work schedule might be, folks that travel for business or pleasure can attend class from anywhere in the world that has internet access. | 2. | Online learning enables  student-centered teaching  approaches. Every student has their own way of learning that works best for them. Some learn visually others do better when they learn by doing. | 3. | Course material is  accessible 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Students have the ability to read and re read lectures, discussions, explanations and comments. Often spoken material in the classroom passes students by due to a number of distractions, missed classes, tiredness or boredom. | 4. | In an online environment, attendance to class is only evident if the student actually participates in classroom discussion. This  increases student interaction  and the diversity of opinion, because everyone gets a say, not just the most talkative. | 5. | Online instructors come with practical knowledge and may be from any location across the globe. This allows students to be  exposed to knowledge  that cant be learned in books and see how class concepts are applied in real business situations. | 6. | Using the internet to attend class, research information and communication with other studentsteaches skills in using technologies  that will be critical to workers in the 21st century business community that works with colleagues globally and across time zones. | 7. | Participating online is  much less intimidating  than in the classroom. Anonymity provides students a level playing field undisturbed by bias caused by seating arrangement, gender, race and age. Students can also think longer about what they want to say and add their comments when ready. In a traditional class room, the conversation could have gone way past the point where the student wants to comment. | 8. | Because online institutions often offer chat rooms for informal conversation between students, where student bios and non class discussions can take place, there appears to be a  increased bonding and camaraderie  over traditional class environments. | 9. | The online environment  makes instructors more approachable. Students can talk openly with their teachers through online chats, email and in newsgroup discussions, without waiting for office hours that may not be convenient. This option for communication provides enhanced contact between instructors and students. | 10. | Online course development  allows for a broad spectrum of content. Students can access the schools library from their PCs for research articles, ebook content and other material without worries that the material is already checked out. | 11. | Students often feel that they can actually listen to the comments made by other students. Becauseeveryone gets a chance to contribute, students are less irritated with those that over contribute and can ask for clarification of any comments that are unclear. | 12. | Over 75% of colleges and universities in the U. S. offer online degree programs, with online degrees as respected as on the ground degrees. (Lewis)| 13. | Online classrooms also  facilitate team learning  by providing chatrooms and newsgroups for meetings and joint work. This eliminates the problems of mismatched schedules, finding a meeting location and distributing work for review between meetings. 14. | Students often comment that online learning lets them attend class when fully awake and attend in increments of convenient time block, rather than rigid 2 or 4 hour stretches once or twice a week. | 15. | Because there are no geographic barriers to online learning, students can find a  diversity of course material  that may not be available to them where they live or work. This is especially true for professional training such as medical billing training or purchasing training and for students in remote rural areas that cannot support college or vocational training centers. at this university students The online environment  makes instructors more approachable. Students can talk openly with their teachers through online chats, email and in newsgroup discussions, without waiting for office hours that may not be convenient. This option for communication provides enhanced contact between instructors and students. Do you think it is human nature to categorize people? Why or why not? D. The Oxford English Dictionary defines diversity as â€Å"the condition or quality of being diverse, different, or varied; difference, unlikeness. Do you agree or disagree with that definition? Why? the condition of being different or having differences :VARIETY lt;much diversity in their choicesgt; lt;diversity of opiniongt; 2 : an instance of being different : a point of difference lt;the climati c diversities result in a great variety of plant lifegt; 3 archaic : a variety, kind, or species especially of plants or animals 4 : diversity of state or national citizenship especially in determining the jurisdiction of a court synonym see VARIETY My work free essay sample Po-on A Novel is a novel written by Francisco Sionil Jose, a Filipino English-language writer. This is the original title when it was first published in the Philippines in the English language. In the United States, it was published under the title Dusk: A Novel. For this novels translation into Tagalog, the title Po-on Isang Nobela – a direct translation of Po-on A Novel was adopted. Po-on A Novel is the beginning of the so-called Rosales Saga of F. Sionil Jose – a series of novels about Rosales, Pangasinan in the Philippines. TheRosales Saga has five parts, all of them individual but interrelated novels, composed namely of the following titles in terms of historical chronology: Po-on, Tree, My Brother, My Executioner, The Pretenders, and Mass. Among Joses five-part novel series, the Rosales Saga, it was the last to be written and published but the first in terms of story-telling chronology. In Po-on begins the narration of the experiences of one generation of the Samson family, through Eustaqio â€Å"Istak† Samson, a farmer who joined the rebel forces. We will write a custom essay sample on My work or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The peasant family reluctantly left their original hometown to escape further oppression from a corrupt Spanish priest and from the persecution of other colonial authorities. Their journey lead them to a new place at Rosales, Pangasinan. The novelist discusses the life and the origins of this family while embellished with the historical background of the Philippines during the late 1880s. Alive in the novel were the concepts and the events that emanated during peacetime and wartime; even the status of the poor and the affluent, of the privileged and the powerful, and of those who have privileges, freedoms and rights. During Istak’s time during the final days of the 1900s, the bliss in Istak’s heart when the Philippine Republic finally achieved independence was just for a brief moment. Because that liberation was only short-lived: the ruling Spaniards were only replaced by a new group of strangers from a continent called the United States of America. This colonial transition occurred after the Spaniards were defeated by the Americans] during the Spanish–American War. In Po-on A Novel, Jose revisited these mutual chapters in both American and Philippine histories, together with the presentation of their social and psychological effects to the Philippine citizenry who had been under foreign occupiers from one time followed by another’ The events in Poon A Novel happened from 1880 to 1889, when an Ilocano family abandoned their beloved barrio in order to overcome the challenges to their survival in southern Pangasinan in the Philippines, and also to flee from the cruelty they received from the Spaniards. One of the principal characters of the novel is Istak, a Filipino from the Ilocano stock who was fluent in Spanish and Latin, a talent he inherited from the teachings of an old parish priest in Cabugao. He was an acolyte aspiring to become a priest. He was also knowledgeable in the arts of traditional medicine. The only hindrance to his goal of becoming a full-pledged priest was his racial origins. He lived in a period in Philippine history when it a possible Filipino uprising against the Spanish government was about to erupt, a time after the execution of three mestizos, namely Mariano Gomez, Jose Apolonio Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora (or theGomburza, an acronym for the three) at Bagumbayan (now known as Rizal Park) in February, 1872. There were signs that a revolution will happen, despite of the lack of unity among the inhabitants of the Philippines islands at the time. Another approaching occurrence was the help the Filipinos would be receiving from the Americans in finally removing the governing Spaniards from the archipelago after three hundred years. The novel recreates the societal struggles in which the characters of Po-on were situated in, which includes the protagonist Istak s personal search for lifes meaning and for the true face of his beliefs at principles. Throughout this personal journey, he was accompanied by a dignity that is his alone Istak was assigned the task of delivering a message to General Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine revolutionaries, but died at the hands of American soldiers, on his way to delivering the message. Po-on the novel is only one part of F. Sionil Joses Rosales Saga, the historical epic narrative composed of four other novels considered by the Filipino poet and literary critic Ricaredo Demetillo as the first great Filipino novels written in English. Specifically, Po-on had been described by Random House as a work of fiction which is more than the character of a historical novel, a book with extraordinary scope and passion that is meaningful to Philippine literature. a book as meaningful to Philippine literature as One Hundred Years of Solitude is to Latin American literature. [10] One Hundred Years of Solitude is the masterpiece of Latin Americas Colombian novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez. [2][3][4][5][10] Frank Gibney of The New York Times described the story-telling in Joses Rosales Saga as being similar to the tradition and style found in the U.S. A. trilogy by the American novelist John Dos Passos Jamie Lynn R. SalasRizal’s Life’s, Works Writings III-A PsychProf. Erlinda B. Dizon Bayaning 3rd World It was all about making a film about Dr. Jose Rizal as our National Hero where the film makers Ricky Davao and Cris Villanueva were thinking what would be the title of the film they will make. And they come up with a detective story wherein they will investigate if Rizal is really a Hero, which implies that they were in doubt of Rizal being our Hero. Moreover, they have many questions on their mind that needs an answer. First, who is Rizal? National Hero, the great Malayan, the first Filipino Indio bravo and the pride of Malay race. What is Rizal? One peso coin, even though always devalued always number one. Small but Terrible. In the year 1904 Gregorio Aglipay, monopoly of Catholic Church, built his own church and made Rizal as their saint. Similarly, group of Filipinos specifically cult praised him and made him as their lord. Second, did Rizal marry Josephine Bracken? They say that Rizal marries Josephine but there was no documentary evidence that will proved that they were really married. The Friars said that Rizal can marry Josephine only if he will write a retraction paper. Jose Rizal did write a retraction while he was in Dapitan but there was no signature of him. So, Rizal did not marry Josephine. However, they really love each other and both live in Dapitan and have a child but unfortunately died. Third, did Rizal sign a retraction paper? This was the most controversial issue. There was a retraction paper made but the text and signature of Rizal were not genuine. Maybe, The Jesuits imitates it. In the interview of Father Balaguer, he said that Rizal retract and confess. If Rizal really retracts and declares himself as catholic, it means that he retract with all his heart whatever in his words, writings, publications and conduct has been contrary to his character as son of the Catholic Church. The film follows two filmmakers (played by Ricky Davao and Cris Villanueva) as they attempt to do pre-production research on a film on Rizal. The two get into endless, impassioned debates; they propose all sorts of absurdities (Rizal Underarm Spray), and make witty observations (Rizal on a devalued one-peso coin is still Number One). They interview people from Rizals lifehis brother Paciano (Joonee Gamboa), his sisters Trining (Rio Locsin) and Narcisa (Cherry Pie Picache), his mother, Dona Lolay (Daria Ramirez), his (reputed) confessor, Father Balaguer (a hilariously villainous Ed Rocha), and his (reputed) wife, Josephine Bracken (Lara Fabregas). Their conclusion (people who wish to stay surprised may want to skip to the next paragraphthough doing so may ultimately prove pointless) after much hemming and hawing basically boils down to this: Rizals life is unfilmable. Its the long, shapeless and rather inactive life of an intellectual bum (something I concluded myself long ago, when I was involved in writing the screenplay of Rizal sa Dapitan). De Leon (with his scriptwriter and co-director, Clodualdo Del Mundo) go so far a s to allow that many interpretations can be made from Rizals lifesari-sariling Rizal or, roughly translated, to each his own Rizal. Significantly, the film lacks certain basic elements of traditional narrative film: a dramatic story, recognizable dramatic charactersno one is changed or transformed during the course of the film (the two filmmakers, who enjoy star billing, are named filmmakers 1 and 2). The last shot has filmmakers 1 and 2 (stand-ins for De Leon and Del Mundo? ) throwing up their hands and walking away from the project (as De Leon did, years ago). This is a Rizal movie about the impossibility of making a Rizal movie; in short, not a Rizal movie. Possibly the single most brilliant director of the Philippines (alive or dead) and his closest and best scriptwriter have played a joke on the long-expectantthree years in the making, not to mention waitingPhilippine public. And what a joke! Its long, multi-layered, elaborate; its richly allusivedrawing not just on practically everything we know about Philippine history and our national hero, but also everything Mike De Leon knows (which is considerable) about film and filmmaking. And the punchline works like a time bomb: you may find yourself laughing your head off hours after seeing the film, orsome days laterfinding yourself thinking about it and chuckling. Or you may not laugh at allto each his own reaction to the film. The film is stuffed with jokes and references. The structure is modeled on Orson Welles Citizen Kane, the first twenty or so minutes a fast and funny recapitulation of Rizals life and significance (a la Kanes life, recapitulated in The March of Time sequence); later we have interviews of the different people who knew Kanesorry, Rizal. One shot, of a Filipino declaiming in front of a huge banner, recalls a similar one in Welles film, where Kane is at a political rally; several times we catch the filmmakers poring over a huge blow-up of Rizals executiona direct quote from Michaelangelo Antonionis film Blow Up. De Leons favorite German Shepherd makes several appearancesgently mocking Alfred Hitchcocks tendency to make personal appearances in his pictures. Other jokes: Cris Villanueva, talking to different people and concluding that their lifes story would make a better film than Rizals. Father Balaguers testimony of Rizals last days in prison, which De Leon mercilessly lampoons in all kinds of ways (having read part of Balaguers testimony, I would say De Leon manages to make fun of him without once exaggerating him). My personal favorite, however, is the moment when the filmmakers finally confront Rizal himself (Joel Torre): his replies to their questions prevaricate hilariously, as befits a true student of Jesuits (What did you do the night before your execution? The Spaniards did what they had to do; I did what I had to do.). Some reservations: despite the astonishingly wide range covered by this relatively short film, De Leon fails to bring up the matter of moneythe difficulty of funding a Rizal film, or any film for that matter (De Leon in the years after his GMA debacle should be more than familiar with the subject). Lara Fabregas ruins the fascinatingly unreliable character of Josephine Bracken (did she marry Rizal, or didnt she? ) with a cartoon English acce nt straight out of Repertory PhilippinesI mean, nawbody tawks loyk that! And De Leon blunts the sharpened point of his joke with a voiceover statement at the very end of the filmto sit through all that ambivalence and ambiguity, only to have everything cleared up at the very last second! Del Mundo admits, though, that that final voiceover is still tentative, and may be removed during the films final sound remixing (heres to hoping they do (note: they didnt which is a pity)). Where does De Leons film stand in comparison with other recent Rizal flicks? I cant comment regarding Rizal sa Dapitan for obvious reasons; I do think Bayaning Third World is superior to the monumental Jose Rizal. The first in its eighty short minutes covers more of Rizals life than the second does in three hours, with more clarity and historical accuracy. The film gives properthat is, primalimportance to the question of Rizals alleged retraction, framing the issue thus: if Rizal didnt retract, then he stuck to his principles and died a hero (and heretic). If Rizal did retract and returned to the Church, then he went against everything he had written and said and died a coward (or, as I would put it, a recognizably human being). Jose Rizals implication that Rizal retracted and is still somehow a hero is, as De Leons film so eloquently points out (without once directly pointing it out), a complete contradiction. I cant quite call De Leons film superior to OHaras Sisa (1998); both recognize the difficulty of filming the life of Rizal, both use diametrically opposite approachesBayaning Third World filling up the gaps with wit and intellectual speculation, Sisa with imagination and heart. Bayaning Third World displays remarkable ingenuity in trying to make what should have been a dry historical debate lively and involving; Sisa displays equally remarkable ingenuity in trying to make a coherent and even moving historical drama out of an impossibly small P2. 5 million ($25,000) budget, shot in ten days (Bayaning Third World, though I cant be sure, must cost at least P5 million or more, shot for over a year). Calling one better than theother is probably a matter of taste (personallyand I think you can see this coming a mile awayI plunk down in favor of imagination and heart). Both films, however, should be a matter of modest pride for all involved: Rizal finally, brilliantly deconstructed on filmtwice. This may not be a Rizal film, but its a remarkable Rizal film nevertheless. Jamie Lynn R. SalasRizal’s Life’s, Works Writings III-A PsychProf. Erlinda B. Dizon â€Å"MAKAMISA† BY: Dr. Jose P. Rizal Nanghinayang ako na hindi natapos ni Jose Rizal ang k anyang ikatlong nobela. Maganda ang konsepto na kanyang naisip, ang magsulat ng aklat na ang pokus ay ang kultura ng mga tao sa isang pamayanang Tagalog. Ang mga nauna kasi niyang aklat ay hindi nakasentro sa iisang pamayanan; mas nakapalibot ang mga ito sa ilang tauhan. Ang Makamisa ay mararamdaman mong mas nalalapit sa karaniwang mamamayan ang pokus; ang mga pangunahing tauhang Pilipino na hindi man lang nakatapak sa labas ng bansa. Naisip ko rin na sayang at hindi ito naisulat ni Rizal sa Tagalog, kahit ginusto sana niya itong gawin, dahil sa kalikasan ng paksa nito.Isa itong kwentong mas maiintindihan ng pangkaraniwang Pilipino, na madalas hindi nakaiintindi ng wikang Espanyol, kaysa sa mga dayuhan at ibang mga ilustradong nasanay na sa kulturang Europeo. Ayon nga sa Paunang Salita ng tagasalin, mayroon ngang paniniwala si Jose Rizal tungkol sa kahalagahan ng katutubong wika, na makikita sa kanyang mga akda. Sabi rin dito na nasanay na masyado si Jose Rizal sa pagsulat sa wikang Espanyol kaya nahirapan siyang isulat ito sa wikang Tagalog. Isa itong dahilan na madaling paniwalaan, dahil nararanasan ko rin ang penomenong ito. Madalas, wikang Ingles ang ginagamit ko sa pagsulat, at kapag wikang Tagalog na ang aking gagamitin, nahihirapan na akong ilagay sa tamang pag-iisip ang utak ko. May nagsabi sa akin dati na nakaiiba talaga ng pag-iisip ang paggamit ng partikular na wika dahil maraming aspeto ng isang kultura ang nakakabit na sa wikang ginagamit nito. Nabanggit ang saloobin ni Rizal tungkol dito sa Paunang Salita ng libro na salin ni Dr. Nilo Ocampo (Etikang Tagalog), na kaya nga ginagamit ito ng mga dayuhan ay upang padaliin ang kanilang pananakop sa bansa.